About 5,000 years ago, in China,
folk doctors found empirically on the human skin certain zones or points
stimulation of which by injection or cauterization led to disappearance of
painful effects. (Huang di Neijing, III B.C.). This method, based on certain
philosophical principles of the transfer of the vital energy Tsi was called
zhen-jiu. In 1026, the first «Atlas of Points» came into existence (Wang
Wei-yi. 600 active points). In Japan,
Vietnam, Korea, Mongolia
zhen-jiu therapy received wide recognition in 6-11 centuries. It was actively
used till 17 century after which it ceased to apply. In 1955, in China zhen-jiu
therapy revived after establishing a research institute of zhen-jiu therapy.
The study of this technique was for the first time included into the syllabus
of medical institutions.
The Europe learnt the method of acupuncture
and cauterization in the 17 century. It was widely used in the 19 century. The
interest to this method grew especially in 20s-40s of the 20 century. In Russia, first
mentioning of acupuncture may be found in scientific papers of a number of
authors of the 19 century and beginning of the 20 century (P. Charukovsky,
1828;A.A.Tatarinova, 1853; P.A.Kornievsky, 1863, 1878; A.Ya.Violina, 1903;
V.V.Korsakov, 1928). The regular study and use of this method in Russia was initiated
by the Health Ministry of USSR in 1957.
In the 20 century, in line with improvement of the method of corporal
acupuncture, new systems of treatment of certain active points (zones) by
acupuncture and cauterization, including points of the auricle (er-zhen-lao,
auriculopuncture, Paul Nogier), of feet and hands (Su Jok acupuncture,
Ch.V.Pak) started developing. Known at present are more than 1,700 biologically
active points (zones).
For many centuries in Japan,
the zone massage amma was used as part of the national folk medicine. In 40s of
the 20 century, Tokiuro Namikoshi re-interpreted and modernized the ancient system
and gave it the name «shiatsu». According to the Japanese Ministry of Health,
«shiatsu» is such kind of treatment at which fingers of hands and palm are
used for pressurizing certain points (zones) of the body with the purpose of
normalizing regulatory processes in the organism, preserving and improving
health*. (Namikoshi T., 1987). Since 1956, the shiatsu-therapy has gained widespread
acceptance in may countries of the world as one of nonin-vasive methods of the
first medical aid easy for every person. In the West, this aid got the name
contact treatment or acupressure (Houston R, 1992).