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Eastern Traditions


About 5,000 years ago, in China, folk doctors found empirical­ly on the human skin certain zones or points stimulation of which by injection or cauterization led to disappearance of painful effects. (Huang di Neijing, III B.C.). This method, based on certain philo­sophical principles of the transfer of the vital energy Tsi was called zhen-jiu. In 1026, the first «Atlas of Points» came into existence (Wang Wei-yi. 600 active points). In Japan, Vietnam, Korea, Mon­golia and India zhen-jiu therapy received wide recognition in 6-11 centuries. It was actively used till 17 century after which it ceased to apply. In 1955, in China zhen-jiu therapy revived after establish­ing a research institute of zhen-jiu therapy. The study of this tech­nique was for the first time included into the syllabus of medical institutions.
The Europe learnt the method of acupuncture and cauteriza­tion in the 17 century. It was widely used in the 19 century. The interest to this method grew especially in 20s-40s of the 20 centu­ry. In Russia, first mentioning of acupuncture may be found in sci­entific papers of a number of authors of the 19 century and begin­ning of the 20 century (P. Charukovsky, 1828;A.A.Tatarinova, 1853; P.A.Kornievsky, 1863, 1878; A.Ya.Violina, 1903; V.V.Korsakov, 1928). The regular study and use of this method in Russia was ini­tiated by the Health Ministry of USSR in 1957.
In the 20 century, in line with improvement of the method of corporal acupuncture, new systems of treatment of certain active points (zones) by acupuncture and cauterization, including points of the auricle (er-zhen-lao, auriculopuncture, Paul Nogier), of feet and hands (Su Jok acupuncture, Ch.V.Pak) started developing. Known at present are more than 1,700 biologically active points (zones).
For many centuries in Japan, the zone massage amma was used as part of the national folk medicine. In 40s of the 20 century, Tokiuro Namikoshi re-interpreted and modernized the ancient sys­tem and gave it the name «shiatsu». According to the Japanese Ministry of Health, «shiatsu» is such kind of treatment at which fin­gers of hands and palm are used for pressurizing certain points (zones) of the body with the purpose of normalizing regulatory pro­cesses in the organism, preserving and improving health*. (Nami­koshi T., 1987). Since 1956, the shiatsu-therapy has gained wide­spread acceptance in may countries of the world as one of nonin-vasive methods of the first medical aid easy for every person. In the West, this aid got the name contact treatment or acupressure (Houston R, 1992).